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D.200 culminates with the contributions of the famous Greek scholar named Claudius Ptolemy. 90 to 168 (during the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius) and that he lived in, or near, Alexandria Egypt.In spite of such scant personal knowledge, Claudius Ptolemy’s writings have had a greater influence on cartography, and on geography in general, than that of any other single figure in history.[the Planisphere], described a sphere projected on the equator, the eye being at the pole, a projection later known as “stereographic”.If the second method of drawing the earth is used, that is, if the spherical earth is projected onto a plane surface, certain adjustments are obviously necessary.Marinus had given this matter considerable thought, rejecting all previously devised methods of obtaining congruity on a flat map; yet, according to Ptolemy he had finally selected the least satisfactory method of solving the problem.But there are two treatises for which Ptolemy is most celebrated.The first of these treatises is his , in which he lays down the foundation of trigonometry and sets forth his view of the universe.He was also interested in the relationships between the earth and the sun, the earth and the moon, in scientific cause and effect of climate; and above all, he was concerned with a scientifically accurate portrayal of the spherical earth in a convenient readable form.More than any one of the ancients, Claudius Ptolemy succeeded in establishing the elements and form of scientific cartography. This work is actually the first general atlas of the world to have survived, rather than a “Geography” with a long textual introduction to the subject of cartography.

Ptolemy then continues to give specific instructions on how to construct a globe properly.Marinus was a good man in Ptolemy’s estimation but he lacked the critical eye and allowed himself to be led astray in his scientific investigations.According to Ptolemy, even Marinus had made mistakes, either because he had consulted or because he had never completed the final revision of his map. It was a place where seafaring people and caravans from all parts of the known world would use to congregate, thereby providing the opportunity to collect knowledge of far away lands and seas.

Little is known personally of this pivotal man aside from the general period during which he was active ca. During the second century, Alexandria was not only the richest city in the world, with regard to learned institutions and treasures of scholarship, but also the wealthiest commercial place on the earth.

Here for the first time are documented the duties and responsibilities of the mapmaker, his limitations, and the nature of the materials he was to work with.

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